Pavia is situated in the Po plane, by the Ticino banks, at
only 56 km from the confluence of the two rivers and 35 km from Milan. The Civic Tower,
the city centre, was more or less at 45° 11 N and 009° 09 E of Greenwich.
The town was founded as a Roman colony in the first century B.C. in a land populated by
Ligurians and Celts (the Levi and Marici tribes), in a strategic place for
the waterway traffic. At the beginning it was called Ticinum, by the name of its
river. What is left of the Roman town is the chessboard street plan and the brick vaulted
The tradition tells of another town (Papia vegia) situated a little bit upstream by the boundaries of the Ticino valley, near Santa Sofia. Its inhabitants were however forced by misterious facts to leave it and a dove showed them where to found the new town, in the same place where afterward was built a church to St. Thomas. The legend says that were spirits and ghosts to destroy the walls and the buildings of Papia vegia. Maybe the tradition recalled a dispute among several tribes, put to an end by the Roman conquest.
Ticinum became municipium, with the right of Roman citizenship, and was enclosed in the Papiria tribe in 43 B.C.. Vitellius was proclaimed emperor in Ticinum in 69 A.D. In 268 M. Aurelius Claudius made the town his headquarters in the war against his rival Aureolus Aurelianus, and in 271 nearby the town he defeated the first invasion of German peoples (Suevs, Sarmats and Markmans). The emperor Honorius was in Ticinum in 408, when the rebellion led by Stilicon blew out. During the Roman Empire the town was one of the key places for the control of the Po plain; placed south of Mediolanum it was the last port for the waterway traffic going upstream the Po and the Ticino; there was a Mint and an arm factory. A stone bridge over the river Ticino was built in the last period of the empire and it withstood till the 14th century. In 452 the Huns sacked Ticinum and Mediolanum. In 476, at the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Horestes sought refuge here and was defeated by Odoacre. The small town was sacked and burnt by the Heruli who deposed the last Roman Emperor. The Ostrogothic king Theodoric made Ticinum one of his favourite towns together with Ravenna and Verona and he built a royal palace, an amphitheatre and the thermal baths. The town became the head of the Gothic war against the Byzantine Empire and maybe this is why in this period it was being called Papia or the city of the palace.
From 553 to 568 Pavia remained under the Byzantine rule and its fortifications were renewed. In 572, after three years of siege, it became the capital of the Longobard kingdom. The tradition says that the Longobard kings horse kneeled down within the city walls and stood up again only after the conquering king Alboin promised not to harm the people who opposed him for such a long time. Then, as a sign of peace, a woman made up and gave him a cake shaped as the Easter Dove. The Longobard nobles and warriors settled themselves by the old walls in the northeast of the town, in the place behind the present Mezzabarba Residence. During Queen Theudelinda times the Longobards were converted from Arianism to Roman Catholicism. Kings and Queens built several churches which we can still see although through their reconstruction. At the end of the Longobard kingdom, Pavia held for nine months the siege of Charlemagne and his Frankish warriors who had the help, as the legend tells, of Bishop St. Theodores miracles. During the following Carolingian and Saxon Empires Pavia was still capital of Italy and several kings were crowned in St. Michaels Basilica. Merchants from Pavia were granted special privileges and almost all FeudalBishops had their representatives in the town that was also the seat of the Palace Law Court and Administration. The waterway traffic from the East to Central Europe made the town rich and the presence of the Royal Court attracted streams of valued goods.
The plain around Pavia, reclaimed and improved by the Romans through the centuriatio (a regularmeshed net of drainage and irrigation canals), degraded during the Barbaric period due to an irregular water distribution. Nevertheless the medieval monastic orders took care of it replacing the old net with a new one, while several orders of knighthood gave protection from brigands and plunderers to the pilgrims travelling toward Rome and the Holy Land (in the 10th cent. invasions of Saracen pirates frequently arrived to the Alps). In 983 Peter Canepanova from Pavia became Pope with the name of John XIV, but he lasted only few months. Some years later the Roman people turned out the German Pope Gregory V who took refuge nearby Pavia for a year before going back to Rome supported by the imperial army to get his own revenge on his rival the antipope. In the 11th cent. Pavia became a free town (a commune). During the fights between the Emperor and the Pope it supported the Emperor against the Lombard League. Frederick I (Barbarossa) was generous toward the capital of the Italian Kingdom and he helped to restore and rebuild many churches. The Twin Cathedrals, St. Michaels, St. Peters, St. Johns and other churches were rebuilt during the 12th cent. giving Pavia a unique Romanesque outlook. In that time Pavia was told to be a licentious town due to the University students. In the 12th cent. the Archipoet from Cologne sang:
Who is the one who wont burn once put into the fire? Who is the one who will be able to remain chaste although living in Pavia, where Venus catches young men with her finger, chains them with her sight and conquers them with her presence? Every road lead to Venus beds, among many towers the missing one is the Virtues.
After two centuries the chronicler Petrus Azarius expressed a similar opinion concerning the way of life in Pavia during the Visconti Age:
Pavia became a house of ill fame for corrupted women, who were many, and for the great number of corrupted young men. Neither God nor the Saints were honoured. Merry making, dances, singsongs and musical instruments resounded everywhere. As the old traditions said, during the religious vigils, men and women lay together to enjoy carnal pleasures. (Chronicon Petri Azarii)
During those centuries bitter fights took place against Milan to gain the economic and political power until Pavia, conquered by the Visconti once in 1315 and definetively in 1359, remained chained to the rival town under the same Lordship.
The Visconti conquest strenghtened the political and economic supremacy of Milan, but offered Pavia a new season of artistic and cultural blossoming. The Studium founded by Lotarius in the 10th cent., became officialy a University. The Visconti took care of the town image since they wanted to leave an indelible mark as sign of their power. They built the Castle after demolishing a whole district; they widened Strada Nuova (the old kardo maximus) making it the new town axis; they opened Piazza Grande, the square seat of the Town Hall (the present Piazza della Vittoria) and they rebuilt the bridge over the Ticino river once destroyed after a huge flood. As for some other medieval irregular winding bridges, also the one in Pavia was told to have been built by the Devil during just one night, in exchange of the soul of the first man who would have crossed it. However the legend says that the Podestà made a dog cross the bridge before him, thus cheating the Devil.
A wide hunting park north of the Castle reached the Certosa delle Grazie Sanctuary which was intended to be the family mausoleum . In the same years St. Marys (Carmine) and St. Thomas churches were built.
In 1447 Filippo Maria Visconti died without heirs, therefore Pavia and Milan proclaimed themselves republics. However soon the towns fell under the Sforza rule (Pavia after only 33 days). The last one of them Lodovico il Moro was a patron and friend of Bramante, Leonardo da Vinci and many other artists. The new Cathedral works began during these years (but did not finish) and the University settled in the present place. In 1525, under the town walls, was fought the important battle between Spain and France, during which the French king Francis I was captured. Among the episodes of this battle, the death of Lord from La Palice is the one remembered by generations of students with the sentence «fifteen minutes before dying he was still alive». A poetical play upon words made by soldiers or students made the word lapalissian synonim of everything obvious.
The victory of the Spanish imperial army led to a wave of strict Catholic rule, with many trials against heretics and witches and the expulsion of the Jewish bankers (here in Pavia, some decades before, preached the blessed Bernard from Feltre who founded the pawnshops and legalized the banking system in the catholic society). From the 16th to the 19th cent. the town was under the French, Spanish and then Austrian rule. Its economic and cultural preminence declined little by little. The CounterReformation gave Pavia one of the first seminars (settled in St. Andrews church whose foundations can still be seen in Via Cavallotti under a modern block of flats) and the two University colleges Ghislieri e Borromeo for University students. During the Baroque period almost every church within the town was restored and enriched with stuccoes. Sometimes, recently, the removal of the stuccoes in the effort to bring to light traces of Middle Ages damaged several works of art without, however, getting back the features of older ages. From the 18th cent. we have inherited some aristocratic residences (Mezzabarba, Olevano, Vistarino) and the Four Knights Theatre, designed by Bibbiena brothers, then renamed after the tenor Fraschini. In the middle of the 18th cent. the large scale introduction of rice farming improved the population nourishment but worsened the until then salubrious climatic conditions. The extension of the artificial damp areas made the foggy days more and more frequent and in addition spread malarial fever. During the Austrian Empire, Maria Theresa refounded and rebuilt the University; Joseph II nationalized the Seminar rebuilding it into St. Thomas church and supressed all monastries which became part of the state property. Only afterward, between the 19th and the 20th cent. some monuments were restored (St. Peters church is the most important example, but there are also St. Salvatore and St. Mauro). By the national independence wars, Pavia was under the Savoyard kingdom and regained the territory which was severed during the 17th cent. wars. The present Provincia (the land under the present administration) has more or less the same boundaries of the old principality. We are used to define historical centre the town within the old walls, the ones demolished partly at the end of the 19th cent. and partly after the First World War. Nevertheless, the town has old monuments outside the walls too and, in addition, some buildings of our age can be considered as monuments too. Therefore, the idea of historical centre is useful to recall that the whole town environment, with its streets, its buildings, even the less important, represents the historical and cultural evidence to study, preserve and restore.
The widest extension of the preindustrial town kept itself within an area of 220 hectares closed into the medieval walls reinforced by the 16th cent. bastions. The Roman town numbered 8,000 inhabitants and developed to 40,000 in the first century after year 1000. Then wars, epidemics and economic decay, made the population decrease to 18,000 units. In 1815 there were 22,000 people, but the beginning of industrialization caused a growth attracting manpower from the country.
In 1901 Pavia reached 39,000 people. Today the town, after having reached 89,000 people, hosts more or less 75,000 people excluding the University students (who are more than 23,000, considering both the local ones and those coming from outside the town). The built area is nowadays considerably wider than the historical centre enclosed into the old town walls.
THE OLD TOWNHALL AND THE CIVIC TOWER (BROLETTO E TORRE
Both Broletto and the Civic Tower were for more than a thousand years the symbol of the autonomy and authority of the Free Commune. The former as the seat of the powers, of the election meetings and sometimes of the Notaries and Merchants Corporations; the latter, symbol built toward the sky to call and gather the people with the sound of its bells and to reassert the Communes power just beside the Cathedral. It is a composition that cannot be conceived separatly even if between the two monuments there is a distance of several metres. The Broletto is the oldest building in Lombardy belonging to the Commune Age. Its name comes from Brolio that is the area in which the people of a Free Commune used to gather. For almost a thousand years it has been the heart of Pavia. The west side of its yard is occupied by the Cathedrals apse. Here there once was the Bishops Residence which in 1175 hosted Frederick I Barbarossa. In 1198 the Commune consuls turned it into a Town Hall by opening some beautiful threelightwindows on the first floor (Palatium Novum). In the period 123642 the building was restored and became seat of the Podestà, of the Wise Men (or Consuls), of the One Hundred and then One Thousand Council. Other transformations took place in the following centuries. In 1412 were finished in their present aspect the façades looking onto the yard. In 1539 was added to the southern side the Notaries Councils Loggia and in 1563 was fitted into the main façade the present threefloor portico (with the 1564 staircase). In the façades portico where nowadays there is a clock, there used to be an altar with a statue of the Holy Virgin made by a master artist from Gandia (17th cent.). The statue has been recently restored and put on the façade. The Broletto ceased to be Town Hall in 1875. The northern part of the building looking onto Piazza Grande (Piazza della Vittoria) was heavily restored in 1928 when a mullion window belonging to the older building came to light. Nowadays there is a chance that it could be completely restored in order to be used for a new purpose. According to the most recent research the construction of the most important core of the Civic Tower is dated to the 11th cent. (1060). It was stout with the outer walls marked by pilasters decorated with ceramics of Oriental origin and encrusted with marbles and parts of sculptures of several origins (most of them were Roman ones). The picture of the Tower drawn by Opicinus de Canistris (14th cent.) is very famous: it is possible to see in detail also the wooden frame holding up the bells. During the years 1583 1585, the architect Pellegrino Pellegrini, named Tibaldi, built the massive bellfry. The Tower hosted the Cathedrals bells too till a fight pushed the Cathedral to build another steeple just for itself. At its base, some arcaeological excavations made in the Seventies, brought to light a foundry to cast bells and other workshops used to build the Twin Cathedrals in the 11th cent. After many years of poor maintenance, the Tower fell down on 17 March 1989. Inside the Visconti Castle are still preserved many stone pieces of the old construction (the 16th cent. bellfry and some older pieces that were enclosed in the walls) and one of the two bronze suns that were in the middle of the big clock. The brick walls have been scattered, used as it was said to make roadbeds.
THE VISCONTI CASTLE (CASTELLO VISCONTEO) AND ITS MUSEUMS
It is an imposing brick building with a square plan made by will of Galeazzo II Visconti between 1360 and 1365, presumably following architect Bernardo da Venezias layout. In the east wing Pasquino Capelli was walled up alive. He was Duke Gian Galeazzo Viscontis first secretary and he was accused of treason in 1398 after the defeat of the Visconti army in Mantua. Pasquino Capelli was sewn alive into an oxs skin still warm and then walled up for twenty days till the skin dried up and crushed him to death. After some time Capelli was proved to be innocent. The northern side of the castle with its two towers was destroyed by the artillery of Francis I in 1527. The three still existing wings show several kinds of windows in the first floor loggia looking onto the inner yard and they refer back to the restorations made during the first century of life of the building. In the castle there was also a large library with miniated codexes and some Petrarchs manuscripts and an astronomic clock showing the motion of all known planets. It was then turned into barracks with remarkable changes. Above all, at the end of the 18th cent. a general of Napoleons army decided to reinforce it against the artillery shots by adding a large amount of soil and scraps on each vault. This caused a lot of troubles and in particular made the columns of the inner portico sink. The restoration works began in 1911 and ended in 1935. At present, the castle hosts the Civic Museums and temporarily some collections belonging to the University which, however, are not shown to the public. The Romanesque reliefs collection is particularly remarkable as it comes from the no more existing churches. Then, there is the Renaissance wooden model of the Cathedral as it was originally designed.
THE CARTHUSIAN MONASTERY CERTOSA DELLE GRAZIE
It is one of the most magnificent monuments of the Lombard Renaissance. The construction of the present building begun in 1396 by Gian Galeazzo Visconti in order to give his family a monumental mausoleum. Bernardo da Venezia, Giacomo da Campione and Cristoforo Beltrami worked out the plan and directed the works. Between the Carthusian Monastery and the Castle in Pavia there was a large hunting park sorrouded by walls. The monastery was then rebuilt in the middle of the 15th cent. with the present cloisters and the main body of the church was ended in 1473. The building of the façade went on also for the following centuries and the monastery was enriched with several remarkable works of many artists till the end of the 18th cent. As this small guide leaves a too small space for this subject, it would be advisable to look for a specific book in order to be better guided in the visit of the monument. The first altar of the monastery, made of chiselled marble, is in Carpianos small church, that once belonged to the Carthusian monks as well as many other nearby farmhouses.
BORROMEO, GHISLIERI AND CASTIGLIONI UNIVERSITY COLLEGES
Borromeo College was built by will of St. Charles Borromeo, planned by architect Pellegrino Pellegrini, named Tibaldi, and constructed in the years 1564 1586. Its mass can be well distinguished by those who watch Pavia from the other bank of the river Ticino. Opposite the college there is a 15th cent. residence belonging to the well known jurist Catone Sacco. In the northern side of the square there is still a tower that was one of the bestloved places of the poetess Ada Negri. Ghislieri College, wanted by Pope Pius V Ghislieri, was planned by architect Pellegrino Pellegrini, named Tibaldi, and began in 1569. The yard underwent remarkable modifications following the Late Baroque style by architect G.A. Veneroni in the 18th cent. The Neoclassic Style Administration Building was built by will of Napoleon to host a Military School. In the square it is possible to see: Pius V statue cast in bronze in 1697 by Francesco Nuvoloni and Filippo Ferrari; the façade of the desacrated St. Francis of Paula church, by architect G.A. Veneroni (173538) and the side of the 15th cent. womens college Castiglioni which still preserves a chapel with several frescoes ascribed to Vincenzo Foppa, Bonifacio Bembo and other important artists of the Lombard Renaissance (1475).
THE CATHEDRAL (DUOMO)
It is one of the most important projects of the Lombard Renaissance. Begun in 1488 to replace two Romanesque Twin Cathedrals, it was built following the drawings made by C. Rocchi, G.A. Amadeo, G.G. Dolcebuono with some advice from Bramante, Leonardo da Vinci and Francesco di Giorgio Martini. The works lasted for a long time: the dome (m 92,50 third in height in Italy after St. Peters in Rome and Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence) was erected in 1885 by engineer Carlo Maciacchini and only in 1895 a new façade replaced the ones of the two Romanesque Twin Cathedrals. Opposite the Cathedral there is the Bishops Residence (16th cent.). The Regisole Statue, made by Francesco Messina (1935) recalls an old statue, maybe of a Roman emperor, that was demolished during the French Revolution. The nearby Civic Tower dating back at the 11th cent., was the symbol of the Free Commune age and it fell suddendly down on 17 March 1989. The two transepts wings were built in concrete during the years 1930 35. The inner part of the Cathedral is a complex organism shaped as a Greek cross with a large central body surmounted by a magnificent dome held up by tall pillars with several series of capitals and frames. The original proportions were partially changed due to the several building phases which took place in different times. The crypt shows Bramantes art in its mighty vaults with reduced arches. In the apses vault there is the big Nivola, a Baroque wooden case covered by gold and silver in which some thorns of Christs crown are still preserved (as a remembrance of the cults coming from Palestine during the Pilgrimage Age). The Nivola was built as a real scenic machine toward which the priest was lifted to take the relique.
PUSTERLA NUNNERY (THEODOTAS NUNNERY)
Theodota, a girl belonging to a Romanesque family, was raped and then sent to a nunnery by the Longobard king Cunicpert in 638. By the small gate in the western walls called pusterla there was a small nunnery then named after her. It was suppressed in 1798 and in 1867 turned into the present Episcopal Seminary. From this nunnery come some Longobard transennas preserved in the Civic Museums and known as Theodotas sarcophagus. Also the 12th cent. silverlaminated crucifix presently in St. Michaels church comes from the Pusterlas well. Soundings and excavations at the end of the Sixties, brought to light some traces of a Longobardic tower and of a chapel dedicated to St. Michael. The present monument still preserves a beautiful 15th cent. cloister with terracottas of Amadeos school and frescoes dated 1491 by the painter Bernardino de Rossi. The beautiful chapel, following Bramantes taste, shows a Greek cross shaped plan inscribed in a circle. Here too there are frescoes of the same age of the cloisters ones. The outside church, dedicated to St. Andrew, was built in the Baroque Age and it was ornated by frescoes and stuccoes.
ANCIENT WALLS, BASTIONS AND GATES
During the centuries, Pavias walls underwent many changes. The three main phases are the Late Roman, the High Medieval and the Commune Age one during which they were reinforced by mighty bastions in 1547 by the Spanish Governor Francisco Gonzalez. In these walls there were eight gates: Porta Borgoratto (Cavour), the present Minerva Square; Porta San Vito (Milano); Porta Santa Maria in Pertica (Stoppa Cairoli); Porta Santa Giustina (Cremona Garibaldi); Porta Nuova; Porta Salara; Porta Ticino; Porta Calcinara. The walls and the bastions were demolished between the end of the last century and the beginning of the present one. Some parts of them can still be seen; above all: westward from the new Minerva precinct; in the NorthWest Santo Stefano bastion called La Rotonda with the nearby Porta Milano behind the Visconti Castle; some bastions of the eastern side (Santa Maria in Pertica, SantEpifanio, Santa Giustina). Along Viale Lungoticino it is still possible to see the ruins of Porta Nuova (12th cent.) eastward and westward Porta Calcinaras ones (15th cent.).
Naviglio Canals plan, dreamt since the 15th cent., was accomplished only at the end of the 18th cent. In 1722, during the Austrian Empire of Maria Theresa, Paolo Frisi studied the projects to complete the canal so that it were completely navigable. In 1805 the Napoleonic Government began the building of an important hydraulic structure planned by engineers Giussani e Giudici and professor Brunacci, that contemplated twelve locks. This technique was elaborated by Leonardo da Vinci to regulate the difference in level between Milan and Pavia and to hold back the water force. The Inauguration took place in 1819 by the Austrian Archiduke. In the golden years something as 1400 boats pulled by horses went through Pavia by this canal. It took eleven hours to go upstream from the confluence in Pavia to the wet dock in Milan. Nearby the Naviglio were built Borgo Calvenzano Yards; a structure with a long portico with commercial activities connected with the waterway traffic.
MEZZABARBA RESIDENCE (PALAZZO MEZZABARBA)
The residence of Mezzabarba Counts was planned following the Late Baroque style (Rococò) by architect Giovanni Antonio Veneroni in the years 17281730 and it became seat of the Town Hall in 1875. From the entrance and the hall rich in columns, it is possible to reach the hall on the the first floor (presently the Council Hall) painted with mythologic themes by Giovanni Antonio Borroni from Cremona. Some other halls still preserve painted decorations and sometimes curious pieces of furniture. Next to the building there is San Quirico and Siros Oratory planned by Veneroni and completed in 1734. Drawn with an oval design, it is still decorated with two frescoes made by painter Magatti on the wall and by painter Bianchi on the ceiling (Sts. Quirico and Giuditta in Glory). The original altar is nowadays in the Castle Museums.
PIAZZA GRANDE AND SAINT MARYS CHURCH (WALTERII)
It opens itself in the heart of the town and it is sorrounded by 14th16th centuries porticos. The old Town Hall or Broletto (end of 12th16th cent.s, restored in 1928) onlooks the southern side. From its yard it is possible to see the Bramante Cathedrals apses. Diversis Residence called Red House dates back to the end of the 14th cent. and was partly restored in 1935 with the reconstruction of the original windows (a rich threelightwindow on the first floor). In the middle of its façade a faded 18th cent. fresco reminds of a Lenten service which took place in this square with great success. The Romanesque church of St. Marys, named after the deacon Walter or Gualtiero who founded it around year 1000, is nowadays a place for exhibitions, conferences and projections owned by the Town Administration. It underwent a twentyyear restoration that brought to light what had been covered by the building transformations of the previous centuries.
THE COVERED BRIDGE (PONTE COPERTO, PONTEVECCHIO, PONTE
The first bridge was built, as Bishop Crispinuss Chronicle says, in the 2nd cent. A. D. Then, on the bridges sides opened up some shops and small workshops like those we can still see on the Old Bridge in Florence. Being damaged by the frequent floods, the bridge was rebuilt starting from 1351 following Giovanni da Ferrera and Jacopo da Cozzos plans. Some pillars from the Roman times were reused and the beginning and the end of the bridge were fortified with two towers with gates and drawbridges. Only in the following years was added its peculiar roof. In the 18th cent. was built a small chapel in its middle consacrated to St. John Nepomuk that has become one of the peculiar aspect of Pavias urban landscape. Heavily damaged by 1944 bombs the bridge was demolished in 1948 and in its place was built a new Covered Bridge slimmer and wider with a concrete skeleton covered with bricks in order to imitate the old shape.
ST. FELIXS NUNNERY (MONASTERO DI SAN FELICE)
It is an old Benedictine nunnery whose foundation is ascribed to the last Longobard Queen Ausa, Desiderius wife. Suppressed in 1786 and turned into an orphanage, it presently hosts several University Departments. It still preserves its Paleochristian church with a crypt enclosing three marble arches once inlaid with semiprecious stones. The nunnery was rebuilt in the last years of the 15th cent. by Audriola de Barrachis who was an abbess and a painter (one of her paintings is in the Civic Museums). The following restorations saved and better showed terracottas decorations whose taste recalls Amadeos workshop, and some frescoes.
ST. FRANCIS CHURCH (SAN FRANCESCO GRANDE)
The church of the Franciscan Preaching Friars was begun in 1228 and ended in 1298. The apse, shaped as a Greek cross, is built on five large spans covered by pointed arches crossvaults. The long nave has a wooden truss roof. The building material is terracotta bricks like other churches in Pavia. The inner part of the church was completely modified from 1739 onward and covered by scagliola plaster in order to imitate marble; the nave was covered by three light vaults (two barrel and a cross one) and the pointed arches were rounded. In the northern side of the transept was built a chapel between 1711 and 1750 dedicated to the Immaculate Virgin Mary following the plans of Giovanni Ruggeri and Antonio Longoni. It is richly decorated with marble and gold plated bronzes, with a trompe loeil in the cupola decorated with a clouded sky. Magattis frescoes and Bernardino Ciceris altar. The monastery whose façade had been already remade in the years 17071711 by the Roman architect Giovanni Ruggeri, was turned into the GermanHungarian College in 1782 and then modified by architect Leopoldo Pollach. It was then turned into infantry barracks. It presently hosts the University College named after Cairoli Brothers.
ST. JOHNS OF THE WOMEN CHURCH (SAN
This really old church is situated in the inner part of a block and it was built on the old Roman Thermal Baths then turned into a Baptistery for the women, during the Longobard age. According to some authors the church was consacrated to St. John the Baptist by Queen Gundiberga, Theudelindas daughter. The crypt and the steeple date back to the 11th cent. building. The former preserves a really interesting cycle of medieval frescoes (11th13th centuries). The present façade has a terracotta rose window and other 15th cent. decorations. In a Renaissance chapel there is the canonic Pizzocaros tomb, venerated by many people as a saint. The present church was rebuilt with an only nave with side chapels in 1611.
ST. LANFRANCS CHURCH
It is situated at 2.5 km west of Pavia. It was built by some monks coming from Vallombrosa and firstly dedicated to the St. Sepulcre. According to a manuscript chronicle, the church and the monastery were founded in 1090. The bishop Lanfranco Beccari died in Saint Sepulchres Monastery in 1198 shortly after he arrived there. He was buried in the nearby church and this is the reason why its name changed. St. Lanfrancs church, shaped as a Latin cross, has an only nave divided into four spans. The transepts wings more or less squareshaped are much longer than the central space. It neednt a long observation to notice that the churchs plan is highly irregular. The longitudinal axis bends rightward beyond the nave, which meets the transept obliquely and the northern part of the crossshaped plan is closed by a heavily crooked wall. All the naves sidewalls bend outward. The steeple was rebuilt in 1237. The façade completed in the half of the 13th cent. is the only decorated part of the building. Inside the semicolumns capitals, cubeshaped, are extremely simple. The façades proportions higher than the naves, are better shown by the upright lines of the angular buttresses and by the nice inbetween small columns. The portal and its frame are built in stone while the rest is all made of bricks except for one or two basement layers. A large circular window opened in the middle area at the back made the old opening disappear; beside it there are two small circular openings belonging to the older building. Around 1460, abbot Luca Zanachi built the small cloister by the southern side of the nave. This nice structure reminds for its shape elegance and its terracottas style the famous cloisters of the Carthusian Monastery in Pavia. The small cloister, however, was largely destroyed at the end of the 18th cent. and we can presently see only one of its sides. Always to abbot Lucas will are ascribed the wooden choirs stalls. St. Lanfrancs mausoleum, set behind the altar, was made toward the end of the 15th cent. by Cardinal Pallavicini who also rebuilt the choir in the present shape and promoted the widening of the monastery. The second cloister, built with elegant Renaissance shapes following Bramantes taste, still preserves tondos with painted saints.
ST. LAZARUS CHURCH
St. Lazarus small church, 1.5 km east of Pavia, was built in the middle of the 12th cent. It is a simple rectangular room covered by a truss roof. If the inner part of the building is not really interesting, the outside part, the façade. its sides and the apse are arranged with much elegance. On the façade we can notice a threelightwindow whose frame ends upward with two extremely flat arches placed on a wide shelf. No other church of Lombard style bears this nice kind of decoration. The windows frame extends the doors one so that it joins all the openings with the same main drawing and divides the façade into three squares thus making it higher. The crowning is made of deep bowings placed on small columns and by a stout fascia kept up by brackets; then some maijolicas can be easily seen in the bowing gables. A similar crowning runs around the apse and extends itself along all sides. The Lombard architecture has never again made something more graceful of this kind. Stones have not almost been employed; the marble small columns and capitals, doors bases and lintels are almost the only parts of the building which are not made of bricks. These structures are highly remarkable for their shape regularity, the clearness of their profiles and the materials quality and they give a good idea of the development of the 12th cent. industry in Pavia. St. Lazarus small church stands out for the elegance of its decorations and the beauty of its materials, superior to all the other Romanesque monuments in Pavia so that we can ask ourselves if the building, made in the middle of the 12th cent., was not rebuilt a hundred years later. With no doubt the church was constructed straight off with materials coming from the same place, assembled by a skilled craftsman, ordered and get under way by an architect owning the most delicate taste.
ST. MAIEULS CLOISTER (CHIOSTRO DI SAN MAIOLO)
It was a Benedictine (Cluniac) monastery built in 967 by Maieul, the general abbot of the order, to whose memory it was later dedicated. It still bears traces of the Romanesque period, but, above all, shows a beautiful Renaissance cloister restored in the Sixties which nowadays hosts the State Archives. The church, seat of the Somaschi Order, presently desacrated and empty, is waiting to be newly employed.
OUR SAVIOURS ST. MAUROS CHURCH (SAN
It was founded as a Longobard kings mausoleum, but then became one of the Benedictine monasteries spreading culture during the Middle Ages. At the end of the 10th cent. it was ruled by abbot Maieul and received rich donations by Emperess Adelaide. In 1448 the monastery was joined to the congregation of Santa Giustina from Padua and it was reorganized. In the second half of the century the decoration of the inside was ended; following the Renaissance taste with wooden golden frames which recall St. Columbanus Basilica in Bobbio. The altar, of golden chiselled stone, was made by Antonio de Novaria (1504). The most interesting frescoes are those in the first and fourth chapels on the left (St. Maieul and Abbot St. Anthonys stories) and those of the last chapel on the left (St. Benedicts story). Some of these stories may have been painted by Bernardino Lanzani from San Colombano who worked also in St. Marys of the Carmelites St. Michaels and St. Theodores churches and in Bobbio. The nearby monastery with its 15th cent. cloister and some other traces of its old splendor, has been recently abandoned by the Military Corps of Engineers and is waiting to be newly employed.
ST. MICHAELS BASILICA (SAN MICHELE MAGGIORE)
It is one of the masterpieces of the Lombard Romanesque architecture of the 12th cent. In this church were crowned the kings of Italy from the 10th to the 12th cent. (in its present reconstruction only the crowning of Frederick I Barbarossa). It has a stout façade made of sandstone divided into three parts by pilasters and crowned by a small loggia. In the lower part there used to be some chiselled fillets nowadays worn by weather and pollution. There once were six portals: three on the main façade, one in the northern transept and two on its sides (presently walled). The base of the cupola as well as the apse are crowned by small loggias, too. The inside, shaped as a Latin cross, has a threenave mighty structure based on pillars and covered by crossvaults. The womens galleries are above the aisles, the octagonal dome at the crossing of the arms, while the raised presbytery is based on the crypt. The church has an only apse. At a first glance it is possible to see that the construction bears several irregularities. Quick arches run along the transept and the apses walls. Some recently restored frescoes ornate the second span of the right aisle. The high altar is decorated by reliefs made by masters from Campione (1383). On the opposite floor there are the remains of a mosaic bearing a Labirinth and a picture of the Months. In the southern transept a richly sculptured niche still bears frescoes showing the Passing of the Virgin Mary. This peculiarity was maybe linked with the kings crownings. In the chapel right of the presbytery there is a silver laminated crucifix (12th cent.) while in the apse a fresco showing the crowning of the Virgin dating the end of the 14th cent. The charming threenave crypt is based on small columns which still bear capitals older than the present building. It is also interesting to have a look at the apse from the Vicarages yard at the back of the church. The nearby Piazzetta Azzani still bears the plan and some architectural traces of the Romanesque disposition: it used to be the entrance yard of the crowning trains.
ST. PETERS BASILICA IN GOLDEN CEILING (SAN
PIETRO IN CIEL DORO)
It is a Lombard Romanesque church and it was an important seat of Benedictine (Cluniac) Monks. Its foundation dates back to the Longobard age and is ascribed to the wise king Liutprand who brought St. Augustines reliques from Cagliari to Pavia. The building was raised to the present shape in the 12th cent. In the façade an only portal gives way to a large nave. All pillars, except for some differences in their ribbing, resemble one another but for the last one of each row. Arches and pillars divide both the nave and the aisles into five quite equal spans. The nave is not divided into large squared spans as in other Romanesque churches, but shows narrow and oblong spans which relate to the squared divisions of the aisles. The transepts plan does not extend itself beyond the sidewalls. It stands out just for its wideness and its barrellvaults. The naves crossing with the transept is covered with an octagonal dome. The main apse opens itself directly on the transept without the span which is present in almost all Lombard churches like St. Ambroses in Milan and St. Michaels in Pavia. Above the high altar the Gothic St. Augustines Ark stands out. It is a complex work made of marble, rich in statues and reliefs made in 1362 by sculptors from Campione and Lombardy influenced by Tuscan Art. The crypt preserves, behind the altar, a small modern sarcophagus with Severinus Boetius bones, Roman philisopher and King Theodorics advisor, killed by the same king for treason in 524. The writer Boccaccio in a short story of his Decameron sets in St. Peters the story of a nobleman named Torello da Strada who was magically brought back to Pavia fron Sultan Saladins prisons.
ST. THEODORES CHURCH
It was originally dedicated to St. Agnes. When the body of St. Theodore, Bishop of Pavia from 736 to 778, was brought here, the church changed its name. As in St. Peters the transepts plan does not exceed the aisles and it stands out just for its different shape and its higher vaults (the octagonal dome is flanked by two barrelvaults following the Lombard style of Pavia). The crypt takes up the whole transept and apses area which is quite unique in the Romanesque churches in Pavia. The nave and the two aisles are covered by crossvaults and, as in St. Peters , the naves spans are as wide as the aisles ones. However here, unlike the other church, the central spans are squareshaped while the aisles ones are oblong. Consequently, the nave has large squared spaces while the aisles are divided as the central area. The façade is not really interesting but for the portals sculptures. Its aspect changed greatly when the church was rebuilt during the restoration at the beginning of this century. On the other hand, the whole aspect is really elegant above all due to the two superimposed lanterns based on the dome. The building is made of bricks except for the capitals, the small columns in the crypt and few other particulars. Also the external frames brackets are made of terracotta. The 12th cent. Lombard monuments show the great ability of the time to kiln and work bricks. At this regard St. Theodores is linked with St. Lazarus small church. The decoration is really simple. In the pillars the cubicshaped semicolumns capitals are mainly without sculptures. The two frescoes in the first left span are extremely interesting and were painted by Bernardino Lanzani in 1522 just after the battle between the French and the Spanish army to gain control over the town. He pictured the whole town from a great height with richness of details till the nearby area around the Carthusian Monastery. On the presbytery, made by the same painter, there are some stories about St. Agnes on the right and about St. Theodore on the left; under the latters some pictures showing the Fishermens Offers to the Bishops table.
ST. EUSEBIUS CRYPT (CRIPTA DI SANTEUSEBIO)
This crypt is what is left of a Romanesque church built on the same place of an Arian Cathedral. The church rebuilt in the 17th cent. became part of the hospital but was then demolished to widen the present Piazza Leonardo da Vinci. The structure above the crypt was made in 1968. There can still be seen several 7th cent. capitals and an interesting vault structure (11th cent.). Around the apse there a re the remains of some capucinelike buring places. The nice Romanesque frescoes restored in the Sixties are now weatherworn and almost disappeared.
OUR LADYS OF THE CARMELITES CHURCH (SANTA MARIA DEL
It was built for the Carmelitan Preachers between 1370 and 1474. It shows a rectangular plan made up of modular squares bearing the same measures of the Carthusian Monastery. Its monumental façade is made of rosyred bricks of excellent quality. The inside is geometrically shaped by large brickwork arches, slightly pointed, based on cubic capitals. The buildings section is constructed ad quadratum and the height of both the aisles and the chapels is half of the naves one. The building technique exploited for the vaults (which are not crossvaults but actually domeshaped) is the same used for the Visconti Castle. This could prove that the director of the building yard might have been Bernardo da Venezia. The church preserves frescoes, paintings on board, 15th 18th cent. sculptures and, in the sacristy, a washbasin belonging to the Amadeos school (to which are related also the rose windows brickwork on the façade).
ST. MARYS CHURCH IN BETHLEHEM
It used to be a Crusaders church directly liked with the Bishop of the City of Jerusalem and it was known as Madonna della Stella (Virgin Mary of the Star). It was originally built outside the town walls along the road to the river Po leading the pilgrims to Rome or to the Holy Land. The church was covered with Baroque stuccoes and enriched by several chapels. The restoration made in the Fifties gave it the present outlook and brought to light some Romanesque capitals hidden under the most recent stuccoes. Moreover it was discovered under the floor the traces of an older church dating before the year 1000. Unfortunately these works destroyed almost all Baroque stuccoes except those belonging to the Madonna della Stella. The present statue is still the one referred to by the legend: a fishermens boat agreed to accept on board a young mother and then succeded in navigating upstream the river Po in just one night. The following morning the fishermen went inside the church and there they found the girl: she was perfectly alike the statue of the Virgin Mary.
THE CROWNED VIRGINS CHURCH (SANTA MARIA DI CANEPANOVA)
The construction of this church began in 1492 following a layout attributed to Bramante. It shows an octagonalshaped dome inscribed in a square. The presbyterys chapel belongs to the Baroque Age. The whole decoration both painted and sculptured dates to the 17th cent.: the altars marbles by Tomaso Orsolino from Genoa, the fresco showing the Sibyls, the painting by Guglielmo da Caccia called Moncalvo, the delicate still life by G.B. Longone from Monza and the picture painted by Giulio Cesare Procaccini and his son Camillo. The church belonged to the Barnabite Order and its monastery is nowadays seat of an High School. Presently it belongs to the Franciscans. Behind the church there is part of the 15th cent. small cloister, previously yard of a private residence and the modern Franciscan Monastery made by architect Carlo Morandotti (1932).
OUR GRACEFUL LADYS ST. THERESAS CHURCH
This sanctuary was built for the image of the Virgin Mary painted in 1578 along the road to Cremona. The wall with the painting was brought in the second left chapel of the new church bagun on 5th August 1609. The painterarchitect G.B. Tassinari from Pavia took part to drawing of the churchs plan. The building, still unfinished, was restored and decorated in 1824 by Bishop Luigi Tosi who added a steeple. The 18th cent. altar is nowadays in Villareggios small church between San Genesio and Certosa. The inner part is mighty with an only nave according to the Jesuits architectural rules after the Council of Trento. It also shows some paintings by brothers G. Mauro and G. Battista della Rovere called Fiammenghini.
ST.S GERVASIO AND PROTASIOS CHURCH
The tradition says it was the first church built in Pavia in the 4th cent. by San Siro near the cemetery outside the walls. Some Paleochristian and Romanesque sculptured fragments are still preserved (to the 11th12th centuries reconstructions belong the steeple and the crowning bowing on the highest part of the nave). In the 18th century the church was completely remade and its orientation was reversed (the old apse is on the present entrance side). In the inner part there is the stone urn in which there used to be San Siros bones and a Romanesque basrelief which picture him.
ST.S PRIMO AND FELICIANOS CHURCH in monte joci
The church still has a Romanesque façade together with some parts of its walls. It was named in monte joci because it was on a rise and maybe because nearby an amphitheatre. The inside was remade in the 17th cent. There is a triptych on board dating 1498 signed Agostino da Vaprio showing the Virgin Mary some Saints and the person who ordered the painting. The right aisle added in the 15th cent. bears frescoes with Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforzas coat of arms. It is also possible to see a coloured St. Blaises statue (14th cent.) and in a secluded part of the church a large fresco of the 15th cent. picturing Jesus with the Apostles and another one, dated 1491, with the Souls of the Purgatory.
FRASCHINI THEATRE (previously Four Knights Theatre)
In 1771 four gentlemen founded a theatre called of the Four Knights which in 1869 became the Civic Theatre then called Fraschini after the name of the wellknown tenor from Pavia. The first show, Metastasios Demetrio, took place on 24 May 1773. The theatres layout was drawn by Antonio Galli Bibbiena who also built the theatre in Bologna and died in 1774 just a year after completing the theatre in Pavia. This theatre bears four tiers of boxes ornated by several classical fascias overlapped. It was reopened in December 1994 after a restoration lasted 10 years which gave room to several disputes. During the restoration period have also disappeared many statues and pieces of furniture.
The Studium in Pavia was founded in the 10th cent. and it is reported in Lotarios Diploma in 961. It was reorganized four centuries later by the Visconti family who settled it in the present place and gave it the statute of a free University. It was an important cultural centre also for foreign students and it also was one of the first centres of the Protestant Reformation in Italy then held back after the Council of Trento. It has been made famous by distinguished masters such as: J. Cardan, L. Valla, A. Volta, U. Foscolo, G.B. Romagnosi, Porro, Forlanini. In this University in 1777 graduated Pellegrina Amoretti the very first woman who accomplished the course in utroque jure (Canonic and Civil Law). The central building of Neoclassical taste was reformed by will of the Austrian Emperess Maria Theresa by architects Giuseppe Piermarini and Leopold Pollach at the end of the 18th cent. It encloses four yards placed on a Greekshaped plan, owned by the old San Matteo Hospital dating back to 1449. To be noted: the Staircase of Honour (1823), the Library hall dedicated to Maria Theresa, the Sforza Hospital Yard with its cotto decorations among which St. James shell stands out as a symbol of pilgrimages and hospitals. The Aula Magnas façade (1850) bears Neoclassic shapes and imitates the layout of an old temple with Corinthian capitals. Opposite the old hospitals wall there is a copy of the Mantegazzas Piety basrelief whose original (15th cent.) is nowadays preserved in the Civic Museums.
MEDIEVAL AND ROMANESQUE PAVIA
(11th 13th centuries)
The Romanesque walking itinerary begins in the Castle Archeological Museums where a rich range of sculptures from St. Stephens and St. Marys churches is preserved. They were the old Twin Cathedrals, demolished to leave space for the present one. In addition, we can find sculptures from St. Johns church demolished to widen Borromeo College in the 19th cent. Here we also have the opportunity to see from a short distance the portals, the façades multicoloured decorations and the sculptures with their unfinished particulars.
From the Castle we can reach the nearby St. Peters church (12th cent.) whose asymmetrical façade still bears the mark of an old portico. As in every remarkable Romanesque church in Pavia, we can see in the middle of its façade an unusual crossshaped window between two eyes. The naves vaults, here as in St. Michaels, were rebuilt at the end of the 15th cent. with a new technique: in this church maybe to replace a wooden golden ceiing, while in St. Michaels because the too heavy Romanesque vaults began to fall down. St. Peters crypt was remade at the beginning of 1900 during the restoration works followed after a century of decay. In the monument behind the altar, masterpiece of Gothic sculpture, is buried Saint Augustine. In the crypt, in a modern shrine, are preserved Severinus Boethius bones and at its back there is a well whose water is told to have ailing properties. As in other sacred places, underground waters influenced the choice where to build a sanctuary. In the nave right to the stairs leading to the altar, we can find King Liutprands buring place. He was a wise Longobard legislator.
Once crossed the wide Viale Matteotti, go straight on to Piazza Petrarca then turn left on Via Malaspina. Here we can find the ruins of St. Zeno churchs apses, where was once buried Petrarchs nephew who died young. In the house next to it one of the churchs aisles is still preserved. St. Johns church, oncealed in the inner part of a block, shows a beautiful Romanesque steeple, some siderooms with traces of Medieval paintings and a crypt with an extremely fascinating irregular plan, columns from Roman monuments and 11th cent. frescoes (Christ in Glory, The Baptism of Jesus, Saints). This church, wanted by the Longobard Queen Gundiberga, Theudelindas daughter, was built in the same place where there used to be one of the Roman Thermal Baths. It also had a womens Baptistery.
In Piazza della Vittoria (Piazza Grande) the restoration of St. Marys Walteriis church has been recently finished. It is a 11th cent. church which still bears the name of its founder; it is rich in frescoes and it is presently used to host concerts and exhibitions. At the other end of the square, we can see the Broletto: the 12th 13th cent.s Town Hall. Its façade was heavily restored in 1928, but the inner yard is worth being seen.
Walking along Via Omodeo and flanking the Civic Towers ruins (the 11th cent. tower fallen down on 17th March 1989), we arrive in Piazza Duomo the old Atrio di San Siro where there once were two Twin Cathedrals whose rests we have already seen in the Castles Museums.
Then, choosing the narrow and sloping Via dei Liguri, we walk through the old Jewish ghetto once called Rovelecca. At the end of it, we turn right on Via Cardinal Maffi and from this place we can see the wonderful foreshortening of St. Theodore churchs apses and its base of the cupola (13th cent.). This church is like a small jewel. It is all made of bricks with a threefloor base of the cupola and a 16th cent. small lantern based on the top of it. Inside it is rich in frescoes dating from the 13th to the 16th centuries among which the famous view of Pavia taken from a great height (1522) showing the town in detail. The crypt, wide as the whole church, is interesting for its capitals with grotesque images among which several twotailed mermaids stand out.
Going back on Via Maffi and keeping straight on, we arrive to St. Michaels church, the most important and typical example of Romanesque architecture in Pavia. Besides visiting the church inside, it is worth walking around the outside walls, among big vaults and ruins of old towers, just to taste its outward part and its fitting in the town context.
Dont forget to have a look at the Vicarages yard from Piazzetta Azzani (which still bears its Medieval look on a whole side and frames the mighty transepts front) to see from a short distance the magnificent apse, with the signs of the sandstone corrosion. From Piazzetta Azzani we can reach Vicolo San Colombano . San Colombanos small church (13th cent.) has been recently restored as a private residence. Then, walking toward Via Porta, we turn left between the two Romanesque towers built as ornaments to private residences: dont forget that Pavia was called the onehundredtowers town (but they were more than one hundred!). On the right we can see Santa Mostiolas Nunnery, desacreted in the 18th cent. and then home of a Youth Institution no more working nowadays. In order to better taste its Romanesque remains, turn right on Via Ressi. We will be able to see through an open garden door the octagonal base of the cupola, the apses ruins and what is left of the nunnery. This garden is uncorrectly known as the Longobard kings garden. We end our itinerary at St. Primos church which, with its restored façade and remade inside, stores precious paintings of the 14th 15th centuries.
PAVIA IN THE VISCONTI AND SFORZA TIMES
(14th 15th centuries) Also this itinerary begins in the Visconti Castle as it was the symbol of more than two centuries dominion of the Visconti and Sforza families (from the second half of the 14th to the first half of the 16th cent.).
At this purpose, we can see inside the castle the frescoes and paintings rich collection and a wooden model of the Cathedral.
From this starting point, go straight on to Strada Nuova, the old town Kardo reopened and restored by the Visconti, which from that time took the present name. Then, keeping straight on in order to reach Piazza Grande (Piazza della Vittoria) we pass the University, settled by Lodovico il Moro in the previous Azzone Viscontis residence of which it still keeps some traces. Once in the square, we can see the Red House or Diversis House built in 1376 1383 by Nicolino de Diversi who was maestro delle entrate (financial officer) at the Visconti court.
From Piazza della Vittoria we can reach St. Mary of the Carmelites church whose project is strictly entwined with the Castle one, both for historical and stylistic reasons. Then, arriving in Corso Cavour we can look upward to discover the 15th cent. Cristopher Bottigellas Tower by the UPIM Department Store. Inside the opposite building it is still preserved a wide hall with hanging terracotta capitals that was part of Bottigellas Residence then enclosed in the Senatores Monastery.
We now approach the Cathedral (Duomo), whose construction began in 1488 by will of Cardinal Ascanius Sforza. In the nearby Via Menocchio we can visit the 15th cent. Theodotas Nunnery enclosed in the present Episcopal Seminary. Going down the flight of steps we are now in Via Regina Adelaide where the house built by will of Bishop Grassi at the beginning of the 15th cent., stands out for its restoration conceived to achieve a stylistic integration. Walking down Via Porta Pertusi, we can reach the remains of the Eustachis Residence with its beautiful portal. Also this building, owned by the town municipality, was restored by architect E. C. Aschieri in 1965. The Eustachi were a fishermen family from which was born Pasino degli Eustachi Captain of the Ducal Fleet which defeated the Venetians in the naval battle on the river Po. In Via dei Liguri, going back toward the Cathedral just before reaching St. Maieuls Cloister, we can still see a fine Gothic portal with the emblem of Christ and two monograms.
The Covered Bridge over the river Ticino is a bad copy of the one built in the middle of the 14th cent. and destroyed in 1948 because of the damages of the 1944 bombs. The present bridge is a faint copy of the original, with a concrete structure covered by bricks.
Between Via Alboino and Via Porta Nuova there is a quite big residence of the Visconti Times which was in origin larger and also enclosed a wider yard. The restored remaining part is still charming and looks onto a garden. It also has interesting rooms of the 18th cent. which cant be visited as they are presently part of a private residence.
In St. Primos church we can see the Sforza times nave with interesting frescoes and a marble statue of the saint (14th cent.).
On the nearby Via Bernardo Sacco stands out the Lonati Residences portal with a memorial tablet of 1456. The inside part has been remade during our century. In Piazza Borromeo there is the former Sacco College (the present St. Margherita Hospital).
In Via Foscolo it is important to visit the Cornazzani Residence. This house is a beautiful building of the 15th cent. still preserving some interesting frescoes; it is also called Foscolos House.
We close our itinerary with a visit to Bottigellas Residence in Corso Mazzini by Piazza del Municipio (the present Gandini College),Saint Marys church (planned by Bramante), Cavagnas Residence in Via Defendente Sacchi (recently restored) and Castiglioni College with its really interesting chapel covered with frescoes.
Outside the old town walls there are several interesting building to visit such as: St. Salvatores church (St. Mauro), St. Lanfrancs small cloister, Mirabello Castle, Caselle Farmhouse (Zerbolò), Belvedere Farmhouse (nearby Scarpone area on the road to BroniStradella) and, of course, the Carthusian Monastery.